The development of electronic ink and electronic p

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The development of e-books, e-ink and e-paper

in the process of information transfer by electronic media (CD-ROM or network), there will be a variety of interesting and useful applications. Compared with print media, electronic media has the characteristics of creativity, interactivity, compactness and practicality


in order to get e-books like traditional books, people have carried out a lot of research and development, and obtained many theoretical results. These innovations facilitate readers to read e-books. The existing models include rocket e-book, softbook e-book and stady model e-book

rocket e-book, which is the same size as traditional books, is also convenient to use. With a few buttons, users can use it anytime, anywhere without network support. The storage space of this e-book is large enough to store a large amount of content downloaded from Internet or data storage devices. Product display, as long as the appropriate software tools and interactive user interface are used, users can add circles, highlighted lines and bookmarks on text paragraphs. There is no doubt that these measures will increase people's acceptance of e-books, but this rigid, non crimping screen can not give readers the feeling of traditional books

it can be seen that both developers and manufacturers are looking for a kind of curlable screen that can replace paper or a material with paper like shape that has storage capacity and can be changed by the re tightening wheel. The demand of fatigue testing machine in the market is becoming more and more large. For this reason, people have made a lot of research to develop a "paper pattern" material. This material looks like paper, but can display text and pictures through electronic signals. Many regular customers can see the product's label and image information, and this material also needs to have a certain storage space, which means that they will have the characteristics of not requiring the support of network or energy and allowing multiple use

In 1996, the Massachusetts Institute of technology announced that it had developed special materials for e-books, which could image the desired content. This paper consists of multiple layers of material, mainly spherical particles (about 100 in diameter μ m) , the surface is divided into two halves, half white and half black. Different charges between the two colors form dipoles. The polarity of the particles will change under the action of the electric field. The white hemisphere of the particles faces upward and the paper is white. When the electric field is changed, the particles will rotate to make the black hemisphere face upward and form an image. The position state is automatically recorded. No additional energy is required for reading and imaging. The image can be erased and displayed again under the action of the electric field. However, its main disadvantages are that it is difficult to design and fill particles, and it is also difficult to realize electronic control of multilayer substrates. The MFR of resin is high and the micro circuit chip components are required. Because the paper tape has many chromophores, it can be regarded as the application of electronic ink or electronic paper

the e-book made from this storage medium has only a few pages. It can download and store information from the network or CD, so it does not need energy and network support. This kind of development theory has been discussed for quite a long time, and finally realized through continuous research

recently, with regard to electronic ink, MIT put forward a new theory of using spherical capsules to change the color of paper. The capsule has a transparent shell filled with dark dye liquid (such as blue) and light charged particles (such as positively charged particles). When the electric field is reversed, the white particles move away from the paper surface to the lower part of the capsule, and a dark (such as blue) image is drawn from the surface. It is estimated that this electronic ink based e-book will be applied in the next 10 years


Xerox is further studying e-paper and e-ink, and Xerox Paio Alto Research Center is developing e-paper. The design principle of this electronic paper is similar to that mentioned above, but it is the latest patent developed by Xerox

electronic ink and electronic paper technology mainly obtain black-and-white images, which is a monochrome imaging display. One uses a color filter and reduces the particle diameter to 30 μ M is currently under discussion. Electronic ink and electronic paper are not only used to make e-books that receive and store digital information, but also provide a large number of other applications. In addition to single-sided imaging paper, a new display/electronic screen - large screen display board and electronic bulletin board are also being developed. The storage capacity, erasability and right angle plane design of this device are particularly attractive because it requires no additional energy or only a small amount of energy to maintain after imaging

these theories will be further applied in other technical fields, such as LED and LEP (OLED) screens with high crimp

in the past period of time, CRT (cathode ray tube) screen has been gradually replaced by LCD (liquid crystal display) technology. Although a hyperplane right angle screen is available, a curlable screen is still not available. Recent research is trying to develop a curlable color screen based on LCD. The electronic paper and electronic ink mentioned above also make it possible to construct this kind of curly screen. In the curl screen, the reversible redirection of the color components of the material layer generates an image and is stored in the image generation layer

another method is based on so-called organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), which use a series of electronic light-emitting polymers. This treatment enables the polymer to exhibit color with nonlinear and material independent properties. In order to produce color curlable screens based on OLEDs, a variety of color sensitive polymers are filled on multilayer substrates to obtain blue, green and red

compared with the technical theory of electronic ink and electronic paper, this type of display has no storage capacity, which means that these polymers need energy to emit light, image and display. Recently, LEP (light-emitting polymer) has been used in highly crimped, organic compound based flat screens, and it has been proved that the bending radius of such screens is not less than 15 μ m。 The key component of the scrollable screen and e-book is the multi-color led

rewritable paper

when multilayer polymers are heated, a reversible color change occurs on them. Ricoh and other companies have published their research reports and patents, which describe in detail the production and use methods of this material. The thermal paper is composed of a carrier layer, an imaging layer and a protective layer. The energy provided by the thermal head (similar to the thermal head dedicated to the heat transfer of the pressureless printing technology) or the laser diode is sufficient to make the temperature related reversible change of the thermal material

thermosensitive polymers become transparent under heating. For example, when heated, an opaque substance (such as a white surface) used as a carrier will become transparent (transparent), which is like imaging. Moreover, this change in transparency is reversible, that is, when the entire surface of the substance is heated to a certain temperature, it becomes opaque again

since this coiled material can be imaged through a thermal head, it can be used to produce e-books. Open the e-book to open the page. The "pull" action can erase and reproduce information "on the paper", and realize the "page turning" of rewritable paper by pressing forward and backward buttons. This kind of thermal sensitive material (also known as thermochromic material) can be used not only for display and film, but also for making pages of e-books

development trend

above, we give examples of developing e-books on the basis of electronic ink, electronic paper, curly display and rewritable paper, which show that we are making a lot of efforts to develop storage media for electronic imaging. The goal is to make readers feel as if they are using real paper when using e-books. They do not feel uncomfortable. They do not need special equipment, energy and data connection in any environment and in any position as they do in reading books or other printed media. Although the mass production of this product is still far away, its existence cannot be ignored

in the future, e-books, like today's electronic media, cannot replace printed media (such as books and newspapers). However, it is certain that these new technologies will provide users with another interesting way to communicate and obtain information. The multimedia products produced by the combination of print media and new electronic technology will provide a comprehensive solution for the comprehensive and multi-level energy-saving technological transformation of new media

keyword: e-book/electronic ink/electronic paper

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