The earliest Buddhist printing materials in the Ta

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Printing in the Tang Dynasty: Xiang Da, the earliest Buddhist print, said in the Journal of the Tang Dynasty that the origin of Chinese printing is closely related to Buddhism. Historical records and the discovery of objects have proved that Buddhist monks contributed to the invention and development of printing

the printed Lotus Sutra of the Tang Dynasty, which was found in Turpan, Xinjiang, China in 1906, was very developed in Buddhism in the Tang Dynasty. The ruling class believed in Buddhism and sent the eminent monk Xuanzang to travel west to India for 17 years to retrieve 252 clips and 657 copies of Mahayana sutras carried by 25 horses. There are many monasteries, a large number of monks and a great demand for Buddhist propaganda materials. Therefore, they are active users of printing. During this period, there were many Buddhist prints, which were early prints

early Buddhist prints only carved Buddhist statues on wood blocks for mass printing. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, Feng Zhi recorded in Yun Xian San Lu that after 19 years of Zhenguan (A.D. 645), Xuanzang printed a statue of Samantabhadra on Huifeng paper and gave it to four people, with no more than five loads per year. This is the earliest record about Buddhist printing. The printed matter is only a Buddha statue, and the printing volume is very large every year, but unfortunately it has not been handed down

according to the research of scholars at home and abroad, this print should be from the Tang Dynasty in China, and the printing age is between the first year of Shenlong after Wu Dynasty (AD 705) and the tenth year of Tianbao of Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty (AD 751)

in 1974, the earliest printed Sanskrit "dharoni Sutra mantra" was unearthed in the suburbs of Xizi. The printing period was initially confirmed as the early Tang Dynasty

the earliest extant Tang Xiantong version of Vajra Sutra with clear date records and exquisite Title paintings is the earliest extant Buddhist print of Tang Dynasty with clear date records and exquisite Title paintings. It is a block printed and scroll bound Vajra Sutra, which is fully called Vajra prajnaparami Sutra. This print was found in the grottoes of the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang at the beginning of this century. Due to the dry climate here, it was still intact when it was found after thousands of years of storage. However, it was stolen by British Portuguese Stein in 1907 and is now stored in the London museum, England

this print has a definite age 2 Provide automobile original paint, automobile exhaust catalyst and other product records for 1 automobile group and 1 automobile Volkswagen, which proves that the 24-hour mite killing rate of Yi Johnson Carrey graphene composite fiber in the Tang Dynasty reached 95% of the level 1 standard (60% for Level 3 and 80% for Level 2) when the gap exceeded the standard. The block printed matter of the ninth year of zongxiantong (868). This is a sixteen meter long scroll bonded by six printing sheets. In front of the paper is a picture entitled "only trees to lonely garden". The content is the story of Sakyamuni Buddha saying to the elder xubodhi in Jiyuan jingshe. The end of the volume is engraved with the inscription of universal alms made by Wang for the two relatives on April 15, the ninth year of Xiantong. The scroll is complete at the beginning and end, with simple and dignified graphics and texts, exquisite depiction, ancient and powerful characters, skilled knife technique, uniform ink color, and clear printing, indicating that it is a work with mature printing technology, and is by no means the product of the early stage of printing. It is also the only printed matter with a clear and complete engraving age among the early printed matter in China that has survived to this day

Tang dynasty printed Sanskrit "dharoni Sutra" unearthed in Chengdu

in 1944, a printed "dharoni Sutra" was unearthed from the Tang tomb near the Wangjiang building outside the east gate of Chengdu. It is about one foot square and engraved with ancient Sanskrit sutras. A small Buddha statue is printed around and in the center of the four acrylic stadium, with a line of Chinese characters on the side that can be vaguely identified. It sells mantra copies for Bian Jia, Longchi square, Chengdu County, Chengdu. This mantra says that the time of selling the Bian family seal of Chengdu mansion should be after 757. It can be explained that as early as the middle of the eighthcentury, block printing had become popular in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. This print is extant in Sichuan Museum. It is an important printed matter of the Tang Dynasty in China

since the 1970s, printed works of the Tang Dynasty have been found in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province and other regions, mainly including Sanskrit dharoni Sutra mantra and Chinese dharoni Sutra mantra. The mantra of Sanskrit dharoni Sutra has a total length of 27 cm and a width of 26 cm. It is made of hemp paper. The layout of the text and map on the surface of the printed book is divided into three parts, with a blank box 7 cm wide and 4 cm long in the middle, and a vertical ink Book Wu De Kou Fu in the upper right. The outside of the box is surrounded by non Chinese Scripture mantra seals. The four sides of the seal are surrounded by triple double line sidebars, with a spacing of 3 cm between the inner and outer sidebars, which are full of lotus, flower buds, magic tools, handprints, constellations and other patterns. The printed version of the mantra of the Chinese dharoni Sutra is rectangular, 35 cm long on the side, damaged, and the content is divided into three parts. In the center rectangular box, there is a figure painting, the mantra is surrounded by the mantra, and all kinds of handprints are printed outside. The median box is 4.6 cm wide and 5.3 cm high. Inside the frame are two figures, one standing and one kneeling. The portrait is drawn in light ink and filled with light color. The mantra is surrounded by eighteen lines on each side of the rectangular frame, and the line marks are alternated with ink lines. The mantra is surrounded by a double line sidebar, which is 29 cm long and 3 cm wide outside the sidebar. There are 12 kinds of handprints on each side of the sidebar. The mantra seal is transliterated into Chinese characters, and the mantra is read in circles

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